SSCP Demo and Sample
Note: Answers are below each question.
Samples are taken from full version.
What do the ILOVEYOU and Melissa virus attacks have in common?
They are both denial-of-service (DOS) attacks.
They have nothing in common.
They are both masquerading attacks.
They are both social engineering attacks.
While a masquerading attack can be considered a type of social engineering, the Melissa and ILOVEYOU viruses are examples of masquerading attacks, even if it may cause some kind of denial of service due to the web server being flooded with messages. In this case, the receiver confidently opens a message coming from a trusted individual, only to find that the message was sent using the trusted party's identity. Source: HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP Certification Exam Guide, McGraw- Hill/Osborne, 2002, Chapter 10: Law, Investigation, and Ethics (page 650).
Crackers today are MOST often motivated by their desire to:
Help the community in securing their networks.
Seeing how far their skills will take them.
Getting recognition for their actions.
Gaining Money or Financial Gains.
A few years ago the best choice for this question would have been seeing how far their skills can take them. Today this has changed greatly, most crimes committed are financially motivated.
Profit is the most widespread motive behind all cybercrimes and, indeed, most crimes- everyone wants to make money. Hacking for money or for free services includes a smorgasbord of crimes such as embezzlement, corporate espionage and being a “hacker for hire”. Scams are easier to undertake but the likelihood of success is much lower.
Money-seekers come from any lifestyle but those with persuasive skills make better con artists in the same way as those who are exceptionally tech-savvy make better “hacks for hire”.
"White hats" are the security specialists (as opposed to Black Hats) interested in helping the community in securing their networks. They will test systems and network with the owner authorization.
A Black Hat is someone who uses his skills for offensive purpose. They do not seek authorization before they attempt to comprise the security mechanisms in place. "Grey Hats" are people who sometimes work as a White hat and other times they will work as a "Black Hat", they have not made up their mind yet as to which side they prefer to be.
The following are incorrect answers:
All the other choices could be possible reasons but the best one today is really for financial gains.
References used for this question: library.thinkquest.org/04oct/00460/crimeMotives.html and www.informit.com/articles/article.aspx?p=1160835 and www.aic.gov.au/documents/1/B/A/%7B1BA0F612-613A-494D-B6C5- 06938FE8BB53%7Dhtcb006.pdf
What best describes a scenario when an employee has been shaving off pennies from multiple accounts and depositing the funds into his own bank account?
Source: HARRIS, Shon, All-In-One CISSP Certification Exam Guide, McGraw- Hill/Osborne, 2001, Page 644.
Java is not:
JAVA was developed so that the same program could be executed on multiple hardware and operating system platforms, it is not Architecture Specific.
The following answers are incorrect:
Object-oriented. Is not correct because JAVA is object-oriented. It should use the object- oriented programming methodology.
Distributed. Is incorrect because JAVA was developed to be able to be distrubuted, run on multiple computer systems over a network.
Multithreaded. Is incorrect because JAVA is multi-threaded that is calls to subroutines as is the case with object-oriented programming.
A virus is a program that can replicate itself on a system but not necessarily spread itself by network connections.
What is malware that can spread itself over open network connections?
Computer worms are also known as Network Mobile Code, or a virus-like bit of code that can replicate itself over a network, infecting adjacent computers.
A computer worm is a standalone malware computer program that replicates itself in order to spread to other computers. Often, it uses a computer network to spread itself,
relying on security failures on the target computer to access it. Unlike a computer virus, it does not need to attach itself to an existing program. Worms almost always cause at least some harm to the network, even if only by consuming bandwidth, whereas viruses almost always corrupt or modify files on a targeted computer.
A notable example is the SQL Slammer computer worm that spread globally in ten minutes on January 25, 2003. I myself came to work that day as a software tester and
found all my SQL servers infected and actively trying to infect other computers on the test network.
A patch had been released a year prior by Microsoft and if systems were not patched and exposed to a 376 byte UDP packet from an infected host then system would become compromised.
Ordinarily, infected computers are not to be trusted and must be rebuilt from scratch but the vulnerability could be mitigated by replacing a single vulnerable dll called sqlsort.dll.
Replacing that with the patched version completely disabled the worm which really illustrates to us the importance of actively patching our systems against such network mobile code.
The following answers are incorrect:
Rootkit: Sorry, this isn't correct because a rootkit isn't ordinarily classified as network mobile code like a worm is. This isn't to say that a rootkit couldn't be included in a worm, just that a rootkit isn't usually classified like a worm. A rootkit is a stealthy type of software, typically malicious, designed to hide the existence of
certain processes or programs from normal methods of detection and enable continued privileged access to a computer. The term rootkit is a concatenation of "root" (the traditional name of the privileged account on Unix operating systems) and the word "kit" (which refers to the software components that implement the tool). The term "rootkit" has negative connotations through its association with malware.
Adware: Incorrect answer. Sorry but adware isn't usually classified as a worm. Adware, or advertising-supported software, is any software package which automatically renders advertisements in order to generate revenue for its author. The advertisements may be in the user interface of the software or on a screen presented to the user during the installation process. The functions may be designed to analyze which Internet sites the user visits and to present advertising pertinent to the types of goods or services featured there. The term is sometimes used to refer to software that displays unwanted advertisements.
Logic Bomb: Logic bombs like adware or rootkits could be spread by worms if they exploit the right service and gain root or admin access on a computer.
The following reference(s) was used to create this question:
The CCCure CompTIA Holistic Security+ Tutorial and CBT and en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rootkit and en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_worm and en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adware
Which of the following technologies is a target of XSS or CSS (Cross-Site Scripting) attacks?
Intrusion Detection Systems
XSS or Cross-Site Scripting is a threat to web applications where malicious code is placed on a website that attacks the use using their existing authenticated
session status. Cross-Site Scripting attacks are a type of injection problem, in which malicious scripts are injected into the otherwise benign and trusted web sites. Cross- site scripting (XSS) attacks occur when an attacker uses a web application to send malicious code, generally in the form of a browser side script, to a different end user. Flaws that allow these attacks to succeed are quite widespread and occur anywhere a web application uses input from a user in the output it generates without validating or encoding it.
An attacker can use XSS to send a malicious script to an unsuspecting user. The end user’s browser has no way to know that the script should not be trusted, and will execute the script. Because it thinks the script came from a trusted source, the malicious script can access any cookies, session tokens, or other sensitive information
retained by your browser and used with that site. These scripts can even rewrite the content of the HTML page.
Configure your IPS - Intrusion Prevention System to detect and suppress this traffic. Input Validation on the web application to normalize inputted data.
Set web apps to bind session cookies to the IP Address of the legitimate user and only permit that IP Address to use that cookie.
See the XSS (Cross Site Scripting) Prevention Cheat Sheet See the Abridged XSS Prevention Cheat Sheet
See the DOM based XSS Prevention Cheat Sheet
See the OWASP Development Guide article on Phishing.
See the OWASP Development Guide article on Data Validation. The following answers are incorrect:
Intrusion Detection Systems: Sorry. IDS Systems aren't usually the target of XSS attacks but a properly-configured IDS/IPS can "detect and report on malicious string and suppress the TCP connection in an attempt to mitigate the threat.
Firewalls: Sorry. Firewalls aren't usually the target of XSS attacks.
DNS Servers: Same as above, DNS Servers aren't usually targeted in XSS attacks but they play a key role in the domain name resolution in the XSS attack process.
The following reference(s) was used to create this question:
CCCure Holistic Security+ CBT and Curriculum and
Which of the following should be performed by an operator?
Adding and removal of users
Installing system software
Of the listed tasks, installing system software is the only task that should normally be performed by an operator in a properly segregated environment.
Source: MOSHER, Richard & ROTHKE, Ben, CISSP CBK Review presentation on domain 7.
At which of the basic phases of the System Development Life Cycle are security requirements formalized?
System Design Specifications
Development and Implementation
Functional Requirements Definition
During the Functional Requirements Definition the project management and systems development teams will conduct a comprehensive analysis of current and possible future functional requirements to ensure that the new system will meet end-user needs. The teams also review the documents from the project initiation phase and make any revisions or updates as needed. For smaller projects, this phase is often subsumed in the project initiation phase. At this point security requirements should be formalized.
The Development Life Cycle is a project management tool that can be used to plan, execute, and control a software development project usually called the Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC).
The SDLC is a process that includes systems analysts, software engineers, programmers, and end users in the project design and development. Because there is no industry-wide SDLC, an organization can use any one, or a combination of SDLC methods.
The SDLC simply provides a framework for the phases of a software development project from defining the functional requirements to implementation. Regardless of the method used, the SDLC outlines the essential phases, which can be shown together or as separate elements. The model chosen should be based on the project. For example, some models work better with long-term, complex projects, while
others are more suited for short-term projects. The key element is that a formalized
SDLC is utilized.
The number of phases can range from three basic phases (concept, design, and implement) on up.
The basic phases of SDLC are:
Project initiation and planning Functional requirements definition System design specifications Development and implementation
Documentation and common program controls
Testing and evaluation control, (certification and accreditation) Transition to production (implementation)
The system life cycle (SLC) extends beyond the SDLC to include two additional phases: Operations and maintenance support (post-installation)
Revisions and system replacement System Design Specifications
This phase includes all activities related to designing the system and software. In this phase, the system architecture, system outputs, and system interfaces are designed. Data input, data flow, and output requirements are established and security features are designed, generally based on the overall security architecture for the company. Development and Implementation
During this phase, the source code is generated, test scenarios and test cases are developed, unit and integration testing is conducted, and the program and system are documented for maintenance and for turnover to acceptance testing and production. As well as general care for software quality, reliability, and consistency of operation,
particular care should be taken to ensure that the code is analyzed to eliminate common vulnerabilities that might lead to security exploits and other risks. Documentation and Common Program Controls
These are controls used when editing the data within the program, the types of logging the program should be doing, and how the program versions should be stored. A large number of such controls may be needed, see the reference below for a full list of controls.
In the acceptance phase, preferably an independent group develops test data and tests the code to ensure that it will function within the organization’s environment and that it meets all the functional and security requirements. It is essential that an independent group test the code during all applicable stages of development to prevent a separation of duties issue. The goal of security testing is to ensure that the application meets its security requirements and specifications. The security testing should uncover all design and implementation flaws that would allow a user to violate the software security policy and requirements. To ensure test validity, the application should be tested in an environment that simulates the production environment. This should include a security certification package and any user documentation. Certification and Accreditation (Security Authorization)
Certification is the process of evaluating the security stance of the software or system against a predetermined set of security standards or policies. Certification also examines how well the system performs its intended functional requirements. The certification or evaluation document should contain an analysis of the technical and nontechnical security features and countermeasures and the extent to which the software or system meets the security requirements for its mission and operational environment.
Transition to Production (Implementation)
During this phase, the new system is transitioned from the acceptance phase into the live production environment. Activities during this phase include obtaining security accreditation; training the new users according to the implementation and training schedules; implementing the system, including installation and data conversions; and, if necessary, conducting any parallel operations.
Revisions and System Replacement
As systems are in production mode, the hardware and software baselines should be subject to periodic evaluations and audits. In some instances, problems with the application may not be defects or flaws, but rather additional functions not currently developed in the application. Any changes to the application must follow the same SDLC and be recorded in a change management system. Revision reviews should include security planning and procedures to avoid future problems. Periodic application audits should be conducted and include documenting security incidents when problems occur. Documenting system failures is a valuable resource for justifying future system enhancements.
Below you have the phases used by NIST in it's 800-63 Revision 2 document As noted above, the phases will vary from one document to another one. For the
purpose of the exam use the list provided in the official ISC2 Study book which is presented in short form above. Refer to the book for a more detailed description of activities at each of the phases of the SDLC.
However, all references have very similar steps being used. As mentioned in the official book, it could be as simple as three phases in it's most basic version (concept,
design, and implement) or a lot more in more detailed versions of the SDLC. The key thing is to make use of an SDLC.
C:\Users\MCS\Desktop\1.jpg SDLC phases Reference(s) used for this question:
NIST SP 800-64 Revision 2 at csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-64-
Schneiter, Andrew (2013-04-15). Official (ISC)2 Guide to the CISSP CBK, Third Edition: Software Development Security ((ISC)2 Press) (Kindle Locations 134-157). Auerbach Publications. Kindle Edition.
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